There are varieties of vegetation and animal life existing on earth. They play a significant role in survival of mankind. But at present deforestation has created a great menace to these vegetation and animal life. Deforestation means clearing of forest areas to avail the land to be used for other purpose. Trees are cut in the forest for serving the following purpose.
The most crucial reason for clearing forests is to procure land for agriculture. Due to increasing population, there arises the need of production more food grains, for which new cultivation lands are needed. This need is fulfilled by cutting the trees in forest.
Moreover, the increase in population results in increasing habitation areas for this purpose, people encroach on the agriculture lands. Encroachment on the agricultural land by people habitation causes the decrease in cultivated land. This decrease is made up by removing forest areas. Thus the forests are cut for both to increase the food grains for increasing population and to habitat them.
Causes of deforestation
With the industrial development, there is a substantial expansion of industrial areas. For setting up new industrial units, there is a need of large area which are usually availed by clearing the forests moreover, there arises the need for providing infrastructure for these industrial units such as roads, employees settlements schools, hospitals, etc. for which the requirement of the land is often met by either encroaching upon agriculture land or clearing the forest areas.
Forests have ever been the source of providing fuel and timber for making furniture, houses etc. which have resulted in constant deforestation even, today in the rural area, people use wood in construction of their houses, making thatches doors windows, etc.
Besides, The above man-made causes of deforestation, there are some natural causes as well.
We know that plant absorb carbon dioxide. For photosynthesis and release oxygen which we inhale. Due to increasing rate of deforestation, carbon dioxide is prevailing in the environment as much of it remains unabsorbed. This is what is the causes of global warming as carbon dioxide. Has the property to trap the heat rays reflected by the earth. In consequence of the increase in temperature on the earth, the water cycle is disturbed resulting in to reduction in the rainfall. The process of soil erosion which makes the land change into desert is called desertification.
The water retaining capacity of the soil is also badly affected due to deforestation. The infiltration rate that is the movement of water from the soil surface, in to the ground is reduced. This leads to the occurrence of floods. Moreover, deforestation also spoils the other properties of he soil such as its nutrient content, texture etc. Besides all the above bad consequences of deforestation, we are deprived of many forest products that fulfill many of our needs-
Author – Sheenu Sharma